Improve Your English -192 [Archives:2003/650/Education]

July 14 2003

Dr. Ramakanta Sahu
I. What to Say
Situations and expressions (55):
Emotional Reactions (I)

Man is primarily an emotional being; logic and reason come much later. In our day-to-day interactions with people, there are occasions when any of the strong feelings of the human spirit – love, hatred, fear, grief, and so forth – is stirred up in response to a variety of situations which evoke them. Since situations are a legion, emotional reactions are also many which are not-easy to catalogue. However, we present below a representative selection of them.

– She is ecstatic. The sparkle in her eyes tells it all.
– I was thrilled (a sudden, very strong feeling of joy, excitement) to get the electrifying news.
– Our joy knew no bounds to know that our country is the world boxing champion.
– He was overjoyed when he was told that his daughter has topped the list.
– His eyes were wide in amazement (great surprise) to learn about the incident.
– Your behavior has taken me by surprise.
– Considering her age, it was an astonishing performance. She is certainly a child prodigy.
– Her face was horror struck to hear the harrowing tales of the war.
– One is appalled (causing fear, shock) at the frightening proportions of crimes perpetrated against humanity every day.
– The blood chilling and hair splitting accounts of the dictator's brutalities are horrendous and just incredible (too hard to believe)
– I was traumatized (deeply shocked) by his antagonistic attitude.
– A foreign tourist is bound to be astounded (shocked with surprise) to visit monuments of unageing intellect such as the Taj Mahal.
– I was deeply dejected (sad, in low spirits) by his cold and callous dealings to me.
– He was so put out (worried, annoyed) by the man's rudeness that he didn't know what to say.
– She felt euphoric (overjoyed) over her nomination as the Poet of the Year.

II. How to Say it Correctly
Correct errors, if any, in the following sentences.
1. He killed his enemy by a gun.
2. John is resembled by his father.
3. He is speaking a lie.
4. Don't make noise.
5. They had to leave their rights.

Suggested answers to last week's questions
1. I have a pen, a book and a pencil.
Note: When we mention more than two nouns consecutively in a sentence, the conjunction and comes between the last two things being talked about, the other nouns being marked by commas.
2. With whom did he go to market?
3. French is a sweet language.
4. I have a little information.
Note: 'Information' is an uncountable noun.
5. He wrote some vocabulary.
Note: 'Vocabulary' is used both as singular and plural.

III. Increase your Word Power
A) How to express it in one word
1. A room for reading, writing, and amusement, used only during the day.
2. Taking place during several days coming one after another.
3. Make somebody stupid or unable to think clearly.
4. Make somebody unable to see clearly because of too much of light.
5. An end with no way out.

Suggested answers to last week's questions
1. To spend time doing nothing: dawdle (vt & i)
2. First light of day: dawn (n)
3. Idle and pleasant thoughts: daydream (n)
4. A place where some children can be left during the day when their parents are away working: day nursery (n)
5. A time when offences are punished: day of reckoning (n)

B) Words and their origin
Give the sources of origin and meanings of the following expressions
1. dramaturgy; 2. eclogue; 3. ellipsis;
4. encomium; 5. epigram

Suggested answers to last week's questions
1. corpus (Lat. 'body'): A term used to denote the body or the totality of a writer's work. Ex: The corpus of Shakespeare's plays.
2. coup de theatre (Fr): An unexpected and theatrically startling event which twists the plot and action of the play. Ex. An invalid person suddenly becoming active.
3. deixis (Gk. 'to show'): Personal pronouns, and demonstratives that have a pointing function.
4. diatribe (Gk. 'rubbing through'): A long and rather violent attack in speech or writing.
5. donnee (Fr. 'an idea or notion implanted in the mind or imagination'): The seed of a creative work.

C) Words Commonly Confused
Bring out the meaning differences in the following pairs of words
1. ceremonial, ceremonious
2. certifiable, certificate
3. chafe, chaff
4. chance or opportunity, occasion
5. bathos, pathos

Suggested answers to last week's questions
1. capable (adj) (gifted, able): He is a capable administrator.
capacious (adj) (able to hold much): He is gifted with a capacious memory.
2. cast aside (v, adv) (to discard, get rid of): When he bought a new car, he cast aside the old one.
cast away (v, adv) (to be thrown as a ship-wrecked person): Gulliver was cast away in the land of Liliputs after the ship wreck.
3. celebrate (vt) (to mark a special occasion with rejoicings): The Unity day was celebrated with pomp and ceremony.
celebrity (n) (a person with fame and honor): The young writer is already a celebrity.
4. censor (n) (official with authority to examine books, films, etc. and to cut anything objectionable): The Board of Film Censors has certified the film to be an adult movie.
censure (vt) (to express strong disapproval of someone for his behavior or actions): The officer was censured for acting in a prejudicial manner.
5. celebration (n) (an act or occasion of celebrating): The celebration of Annual Day was a spectacular success.
cerebration (n) (working of the brain; thinking): During exams students' power of cerebration is further activated.

D) Idioms and Phrases
Use the following phrases and idiomatic expressions in sentences
1. make an ass of oneself; 2. aspire after;
3. cast aspersion on 4. as opposed to;
5. as long as

Suggested answers to last week's questions
1. attach to (to be fond of): I am very much attached to Mahweet.
2. atone for (to make repayment for wrong doings): He tried to atone for his harsh words by apologizing.
3. assert oneself (to insist on one's rights or authority): The Chairman asserted himself despite the strong protests by the employees.
4. by common assent (by general agreement): He was chosen the General Secretary of Students' Cultural Council by common assent.
5. as regards (regarding, with regard to): As regards my educational qualification, I hold a doctorate degree.

IV. Grammar and Composition
A) Grammar
Choose the best answer
1. The children shouldn't be left alone. They're too young to look after ))-.
a) them; b) themselves; c) every other; d) their own
2. There aren't enough students ))- on an excursion.
a) for to go; b) for us going; c) that we could go
d) for us to go
3. Word processing is very simple; ))) you have to know is how to give some simple commands.
a) only; b) all; c) just; d) everything
4. I had to put ))- having the party because I was ill.
a) up; b) through; c) off; d) on
5. She wanted to help her mother, so she ))- the table.
a) lay; b) lain; c) lied; d) laid
6. He went to college ))- he felt unwell.
a) although; b) despite; c) inspite of; d) except
7. Sometimes I wish I ))- more money.
a) have; b) had; c) will have; d) would have
8. The customs officer asked us where ))- from.
a) had we come; b) have we come
c) we had come; d) did we come

Suggested answers to last week's questions
1. Slow down! There's no need to run. We're not late!
2. The boy scouts are marching proudly down the street carrying their flags.
3. The bird had hurt its foot and was hopping along on one leg.
4. The little girl used to skip for hours in the street outside her house.
5. The President slowly stepped out of the car to be greeted by the crowd.
6. I have told you before. Don't climb trees. It's dangerous!
7. Would you like to go for a leisurely evening stroll before dinner?
8. He leapt from the top of the burning building into the river below.

B) Composition: Paragraph writing
Expand the idea contained in the maxim

Last week's topic:
Time is a continuum pervading the past, the present, and the future. Like the waves in the ocean it moves on without waiting for anyone. Time takes no holiday. We must always remember that time is one of our most precious wealths. If it is squandered, one of the greatest treasures is wasted. In fact, wastage of time amounts to wastage of opportunities and, in a broader sense, wastage of life. Opportunities come only rarely and it is our sacred duty to make the best use of it. Today is very important. We shouldn't trifle it away. In fact, what we are planning to do tomorrow, we must do today; and what we are planning to do today, we must do now. We must think that the time has arrived for achieving our goal in life and the moment is now. If we neglect, it will vanish, never to come back again. So every moment counts, every moment is important. It should be put to maximum use. We should cultivate the habit of doing everything in time. Lives of great men also teach us how to utilize time in the best possible manner.

V. Pearls from the Holy Quran
” Allah is well aware
of all that ye do.”
S.3 A. 153

VI. Words of Wisdom
“All art is but imitation of nature”