Improve Your English – 247 [Archives:2004/760/Education]

August 2 2004

Dr. Ramakanta Sahu
I. What to Say
Situations and Expressions (68)
Friendship Day (VIII)

A Friend is a precious gem that illuminates our lives and adds color to it. As we conclude the catalogue of expressions glorifying a friend, we call upon our readers to introspect whether we deserve to be honest friends ourselves before desiring to have the privilege of a genuine friend.

– For ever best wishes for you. I hope you know how very much you mean to me though I haven't always seemed appreciative.
– You'll always be a friend worthy of much success and happiness and very special love.
– There's only one happiness in life – to love and be loved.
– Nothing could please me more than to watch that our happiness once again grows as you let your kindness show.
– Gems may be precious, but friends are priceless. Friends are priceless in the way they stick together, come what may. And I'm so glad that you are mine. You brighten my day. You are a great friend.
– When things are not going quite as well as you would like them to, when the skies are less than blue, remember I believe in you and I know that you have inside everything it takes to walk, the walk of life. Remember that I'll stand by you, whatever life may send, to care, to help, to listen any time you need a friend.
– My dear friend! When you are sad, I'll dry your tears; when you are scared, I'll comfort your fears; when you are worried, I'll give you hope; when you are confused, I'll help you cope; and when you are lost and can't see the light, I shall be your beacon shining ever so bright. This is my oath I pledge till the end. Why you may ask… because you are my friend. Friendship is eternal.

II. How to Say it Correctly
Correct errors, if any, in the following sentences
1. Athletics are very popular in our college.
2. The peasantry is not content with the government's decision.
3. He has been teaching poetries in the school.
4. He takes rest daily for two hours lest he will be ill once again.
5. The servant's dues have been paid by his master's assistant.

Suggested answers to last week's questions
1. Only ticket-holders can get seats for this concert.
2. Neither they nor I was ready to agree.
3. I went to the meeting with Bashar and Adel, but none of us was impressed.
4. Majid's uncle asked Majid and me to help him.
5. The spectators were shouting at the referee and arguing with one another.

III. Increase Your Word Power
(A) How to express it in one word
1. A word made up from the first letters of the name of something.
2. A person who is highly skilled in something.
3. Something that is added to something else but is not a necessary part of it.
4. A man employed in advertising.
5. A person who believes that one can only have knowledge of material things.

Suggested answers to last week's questions
1. To give a person forgiveness for wrong doing: absolve (vt)
2. something which is not a necessary part of something larger but which makes it more beautiful, useful and effective: accessory (n)
3. To cause oneself to become accustomed to new conditions: acclimatize (vt)
4. Highest point of development or perception: acme (n)
5. Person who can do clever things with his body: acrobat (n)

(B) Literary terms of foreign origin
Give the source of origin and meaning of the following
1. plagiarism 2. poem 3. press
4. prologue 5. protagonist

Suggested answers to last week's questions
1. peripeteia (Gk 'sudden change'): Peripety is a reversal of fortune; a fall. In drama, usually the sudden change of fortune from prosperity to ruin.
2. periphrasis (Gk 'roundabout speech'): A roundabout way of speaking or writing; known also as circumlocution; thus using many or very long words where a few or simple words will do. For example: her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience (i.e. her nose was blocked).
3. phenomenology (Gk 'phenomena', things appearing + logos, 'knowledge'): A method of philosophical inquiry which lays stress on the perceiver's vital and central role in determining meaning.
4. philology (Gk 'love of speech, or learning'): The study of literature and scholarship. More particularly, now the science of language and linguistics.
5. phoneme (Gk 'speech sound'): A minimal, meaningful unit that takes part in the sound system of a language.

(C ) Words commonly confused
Bring out differences in meaning of the following pairs of words
1. actuate, activate
2. remarked, re-marked
3. coarse, course
4. willfully, willingly
5. considerate, considerable

Suggested answers to last week's questions
1. efface (vt) (rub or wipe so as to make indistinct): The miscreants effaced the inscription.
deface (vt) (spoil the appearance of something by damaging its surface): The post office defaces the stamps on letters before dispatch.
2. forgiveness (n) (the act of saying or feeling that one is no longer angry about and wishing to give punishment): He asked my forgiveness for his wrong actions.
pardon (n) (an action of a court forgiving a person for an unlawful act): The judge granted pardon and the accused was released.
3. innocent (adj) (not guilty of any wrong doing): The innocent should not be punished.
innocuous (adj) (causing no harm): Don't get upset over his innocuous remarks.
4. memorial (n) (an object such as a stone monument in a public place, in memory of a person, or an event): A war memorial has been erected for the martyrs.
memorable (adj) (something which is worth remembering): The Unification Day is a memorable occasion for all Yemenis.
5. imperial (adj) (majestic; magnificent): The President's palace gives an imperial look.
imperious (adj) (commanding): The actress's imperious looks impressed the audience.

(C) Idioms and phrases
Use the following idioms in illustrative sentences
1. have a weakness for
2. the villain of the piece
3. mend fences
4. movers and shakers
5. mind one's p's and q's

Suggested answers to last week's questions
1. play second fiddle to (someone) (to have a lower or less important position than someone): His domineering nature made me feel that I was playing second fiddle to him.
2. pull a long face (to look sad or disapproving): When his application for leave was rejected, he pulled a long face.
3. call a spade a spade (to say exactly and plainly what one means): Outspoken as he is, he calls a spade a spade.
4. catch (someone) red-handed (to find someone who is doing something wrong): He was caught red-handed while taking bribe.
5. a bed of roses (a very easy and pleasant situation): Life is not a bed of roses.

IV. Grammar and Composition
(A) Grammar
Rewrite these sentences without changing the meaning, using the verb given in brackets.
Remember: Some verbs have a direct object and an infinitive with 'to'. Some verbs have a direct object and infinitive without 'to'.
1. When I was in hospital, they let us have visitors every day (allow).
2. The police-officers forced him to sign the confession (make).
3. She said she thought I ought to complain to the manufacturers (advice).
4. 'Don't swim in the sea – it's dangerous', the fisherman told us (warn).
5. I know my brother would be happy if I went on holiday with him (want).
6. I learned to read English at school (teach).
7. Khalid's parents didn't mind if he smoked at home (let).
8. When I was in the army, I had to go for runs every morning (force).
9. I shall never forget the night we went to the concert where Eshrag sang (hear).
10. My friend told me I should telephone Wahid as I wanted to him again (encourage).

Answers to last week's questions
1. I don't need any help in the kitchen, but do you think you could lay the table?
2. Do you remember reading that fairy story about a goose that laid golden eggs?
3. Do you know if the men have laid the carpet yet?
4. She wasn't feeling very well so she's gone upstairs to lie down.
5. I can just by looking into your eyes that you are lying.
6. He didn't move, but just lay where he fell.
7. I don't have to work tomorrow – I can have a nice lie-in.
8. Have you ever lied to any one about your past?
9. When he came home he found the letters lying on the floor.
10. I don't know how long I must have lain awake last night worrying.

(B) Composition
Fill the blanks in the letter below with one of the following words
honeymoon groom bride wedding reception bridesmaids

Janet got married to Pedro last Saturday, and we went to the )), which was wonderful. The )) wore a beautiful white dress; it had a long train made of silk, and it was carried by the two )), who were her eight-year-old cousins. At the start of the ceremony, her husband-to-be the )) was waiting for her at the front of the church. After the ceremony, photographs were taken, and then everyone was invited to the )) in a hotel, where we all had a meal. Afterwards they set off on their ))-, which they were going to spend in Bali.

V. Pearls from the Holy Quran
” For those who do right:
Never will ye be
Dealt with unjustly
In the very least!”

VI. Food for Thought
“The human heart, at whatever age, opens only to the heart that opens in return.” )Maria Edgeworth