Improve Your English: 308 [Archives:2007/1102/Education]

November 12 2007

Dr. Ramakanta Sahu
I. What to Say

Situations and Expressions (98):

Some frequently used legal terms (II)

The language of law is enriched by some special vocabulary consisting of loan words, terms of art, and so forth. It is enlarged by the practice of pyramiding of words and the special meanings words have in law. While, on the one hand, the tension between the alleged verbosity and the need for specificity create difficulties for an easy understanding of the language of law, conventions of interpretation, on the other hand, play a major role in the resolution of the ambiguities arising out of the interpretations.

Use of loan words: A variety of Latin words that contained Latinized English and old French is still found in Legal English. Latin terms in use in Law are recognized more or less as technical terms

Ex: a fortiori: with all the more reason

a litter: On the contrary

a priori: from previous contentions

bona vocantia: property which no one is entitled to inherit

certiorari: an order of the High court to review proceedings where there is a suggestion of bias, or an error on the record.

contemnor: a person who has committed a contempt of court

damnum sine injuria: damage which doesn't give rise to legal action

habendum: a clause in a conveyance specifying the estate which is to be assigned to a purchaser.

habbeas corpus: a prerogative writ to obtain the release of someone who has been unlawfully detained.

prima facie case: a case at first sight; it is applied where the side making an allegation produces enough evidence to make the other side contest the issue. The case is intended to defeat any counter claim that there is no merit in the case.

II. How to Say it Correctly

Correct errors, if any, in the following sentences

1. Despite it was raining heavily, she went out.

2. We had avoided the traffic jam if we'd set out a bit earlier.

3. If I would know what you wanted, I'd help you.

4. If our team will win the match today we would become champion.

5. I will be grateful if you will comply with my request.

Suggested answers to the previous issue's questions

1. Because I'd lost my mobile, I couldn't contact you. or I'd lost my mobile, so I couldn't contact you.

2. I can't understand what you say because I don't know Arabic.

3. I left for the airport well in time so as not to be late for the flight.

4. I went to Edinburgh to do higher studies.

5. Although she worked hard, she never looked like passing the exam.

Or She worked hard, but she never looked like passing the exam.

(Two conjunctions are normally avoided in the same sentence)

III. Increase Your Word Power

(A) How to express it in one word

1. Get a person to accept something of little or no value by deceit or trickery.

2. Meeting-point of rays of light, heat, etc.

3. Person with old-fashioned ideas which he is unwilling to change.

4. Slight peculiarity or defect of character, of which a person is wrongly proud.

5. Person that contrasts with the qualities of another.

Suggested answers to the previous issue's questions

1. Brightly colored and decorated: flamboyant (adj)

2. Easily bent without breaking: flexible (adj)

3. Not showing deserved respect: flippant (adj)

4. Make love for amusement, without serious intentions: flirt (vt&i)

5. Fully developed embryo in the womb: foetus (n)

(B) Words often confused

Bring out the differences in meaning of the following pairs of words

1. concept, notion 2. oral, verbal 3. law, rule, statute, bye-law 4. skill, strategy 5. begin, start

Suggested answers to the previous issue's questions

1. dispatch (n) (the act of sending off to a destination for a special purpose): Please hurry up the dispatch of the presidential decree to all governorates.

remittance (n) (the sending of money): I send her a small remittance every month.

2. rational (adj) (sensible; that can be tested by reasoning): She is appreciated for her rational conduct.

reasonable (adj) (having ordinary common sense): You're not reasonable if you expect a child to carry such a heavy load.

3. buy (vt) (get in return for money, get by paying a price): Money can buy medicine, but not health.

purchase (vt) (to gain something at the cost of effort, suffering, or loss of something of value): The army got a dearly-purchased victory in the bloody battle (battle in which many lives were lost).

4. task (n) (piece of hard work to be done): I find cooking a tiresome task.

tax (n) (sum of money to be paid by citizens to the government for public purposes): All employees have to pay income tax.

5. strum (vt) (play on a musical instrument carelessly): She strummed a tune on the piano.

storm (n) (occasion of violent weather condition): We faced a dust storm while driving through the desert.

(C) Synonyms and Antonyms

i. Synonyms

Choose the word that is closest in meaning to the one given at the top

1. frugality

a. foolishness b. extremity

c. enthusiasm d. economy

2. foray

a. incursion b. contest

c. ranger d. intuition

3. garrulity

a. credulity b. sensibility

c. loquaciousness d. speciousness

4. furore

a. excitement b. worry

c. flux d. anteroom

5. traverse

a. mingle b. frustrate

c. taken d. cross

Suggested answers to the previous issue's questions

Word Synonym

1. august dignified

2. launch begin

3. relied depended

4. obtained procured

5. garnish adorn

ii) Antonyms

Choose the word that is most opposite in meaning to the one given at the top

1. rejoice

a. lament b. make merry

c. dance d. hate

2. remarkable

a. average b. noteworthy

c. commendable d. none of these

3. repeal

a. annual b. revoke

c. cancel d. apply

4. spasmodic

a. together b. frequent

c. nature d. passive

5. sententious

a. strident b. stem

c. prolix d. laxity

Suggested answers to the previous issue's questions

Word Antonym

1. prototype duplicate

2. refrain indulgence

3. rebuke applaud

4. robust weak

5. rigid flexible

(D) Spelling

Choose the correctly spelt word

1. a. absord b. absurd c. absaurd d. obsord

2. a. abundant b. abondant c. abundent d. abaundant

3. a. aboosive b. abeusive c. abusive d. abushive

4. a. academic b. akademeek

c. academic d. academik

5. a. accelerate b. accilerate c. aksilerate d. accilarate

Suggested answers to the previous issue's questions

1. absence 2. absolute 3. absorption

4. abstain 5. abstraction

(E) Phrases and idioms

Use the following in sentences

1. have the patience of Job 2. a piece of cake

3. have a sinking feeling 4. get into a state

5. run out of steam

Suggested answers to the previous issue's questions

1. bear fruit (to produce results): His single minded devotion to duty bore fruit at last.

2. lose one's marbles (to become insane): His decision to contest in the election is stupid – it seems he has lost his marbles.

3. separate the sheep from the goats (to separate or distinguish the good from the bad or the worthless): The critical questions in the exam will easily separate the sheep from the goats.

4. be all over (some one) (to be over-friendly to some one): She was visibly embarrassed when he tried to be all over her at the party.

5. get your act together (to get oneself organized): You must get your act together before the school opens and the new session begins.

VI. Grammar and Composition

I. Grammar

Put these words connected with money into the blanks in the sentences

Nouns: debt, income, loan, interest, funds

Verbs: earn, borrow, lend, repay, owe

1. The company went out of business because they did not even have sufficient in their account to pay their employees.

2. I'd be happy to you $5 as long as you can give it back before the weekend.

3. The annual rate is 15%, so if you borrow $100, you have to pay back $115 at the end of the year.

4. The highest-paid company directors in this country have an annual of more than $1 million made up from salaries and bonuses.

5. She agreed with the bank manager that she would the money in twelve installments of $50 per month.

6. The government went to a group of international banks to ask for a of $20 billion.

7. You haven't forgotten that you me $25, have you? When will I get it back?

8. He borrowed a further $200, on top of the original $800, so his total . was $1000.

9. In most countries, the more you in your job, the more tax you have to pay.

10. The company had to a large sum of money so that the business could expand.

Suggested answers to the previous issue's questions

Mahmoud: When did you get back home?

Ezaz:We arrived last week.

Mahmoud: What have you been doing since you got back?

Ezaz: We have been trying to organize the house and children.

Mahmoud: What was your wife doing while you were working?

Ezaz: Well, she was very busy because she managed to get a part-time job.

Mahmoud: Have you started looking for a job in this country yet?

Ezaz: No. I Have not had a minute since we got back.

Mahmoud: What is the time? I must dash. Don't forget to come to dinner.

(B) Composition

Expand the central idea contained in the maxim


Expansion of the topic of Lesson 307



There is a saying, “Past is history, future is mystery. Today is the gift.” That is why it is also 'Present.' We should realize the value of the present and cultivate our best efforts at the right moment in the right direction which would lead to success. We should maximize the present. If we take care of today, tomorrow will take care of itself. Seneca, the Greek philosopher aptly puts it: “He is only anxious about the future to whom the present is unprofitable.” The celebrated scientist Einstein said, “I never think of the future. It comes soon enough.” So we should abandon tomorrow-mindedness because tomorrow never comes. Let's say 'No' to tardiness or procrastination because procrastination is the thief of time.

V. Pearls from the Holy Quran

“He that doeth evil shall only be recompensed according to his evil: No wrong shall be done unto them.” S6: A160

VI. Food for Thought

“It is wise to keep in mind that neither success nor failure is ever final.”)Roger Babson