QAT: A Dangerous Drug Under the Microscope [Archives:2000/03/Culture]

January 17 2000

2nd in a Series
1 of 1 (1993)
TI: Qat abuse fuels Somali conflict, drains economy {news}.
AU: Randall- T
SO: JAMA. 1993 Jan 6; 269 (1): 12, 15
1 of 8 (1994)
TI: Qat chewing among Agaro secondary school students, Agaro, Southwestern Ethiopia.
AU: Adugna-F; Jira-C; Molla-T
SO: Ethiopia -Med-J. 1994 Jul; 32 (3): 161-6
AB: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was carried out to determine the prevalence of Qat chewing among secondary school students in Agaro. Southwestern Ethiopia in 1991. Two-hundred-forty -eight students randomly selected from grade 9 to 12 were included in the study with current prevalence of 64.9 % Qat chewing was found to be associated with being Muslim and male. The most frequent users were also in the age group of 15 to 22 years. The association between Qat chewing and grade attended was statistically significant. The health and socioeconomic problems associated with the use of Qat are discussed and possible interventions suggested.
2 of 8
TI: {Qat from traditional usage to risk of drug addiction}
AU: Adam-F; Hasselot-N
SO: Med- Trop-Mars. 1994; 54 (2): 141-4
AB: In much of East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, the leaves of the Qat tree (Catha edulis Forsk) are highly prized for their euphoric effects. Use is deeply anchored in regional customs and traditions. Once controversial, the chemical properties of Qat are now well-documented; the active agent responsible for the physical and mental effects observed when the leaves are chewed is cathinone or alpha aminopropiophenone. According to the definition of the World Health Organization, Qat is not classified as an inevitably addictive drug. However, recent reports of psychosis related to Qat abuse in Great Britain and the United States of America have raised new alarm in the Narcotics Commission of the United Nations. Should Qat be prohibited ?. International law on this issue is currently highly ambiguous. Importation of Qat is illegal in France as in Switzerland, but legal in the United States and Great Britain as in most African countries.
TI: {Qat-the stimulant drug of Yemen, Ethiopia and other Eastern countries.
AU: Weiss- S
SO: Harefuah. 1994 Apr 15; 126 (8): 482-3
4 of 8
TI: Chiral resolution of cationic of forensic interest by capillary electrophoresis with mixtures of neutral and anionic cyclodextrins.
AU: Lurie-IS; Klein-RF; Dal-Cason-TA; LeBelle-MJ; Brenneisen- R; Weinberger-RE
SO: Anal-Chem. 1994 Nov 15; 66 (22): 4019-26
AB: Chiral resolution of a number of cationic drugs of forensic interest (amphetamine, methamphetamine, cathinone, methcathinone, cathine, cocaine, propoxyphena and various alpha-hydroxyphenethylamines) is achieved via capillary electrophoresis (CE) with added cyclodextrins (CDs), including novel mixtures of neutral and anionic CDs. In the latter studies, resolution and migration speed are readily adjusted by varying the ratio of the two added CDs as the anionic CD acts as a counter- migrating complexing reagent. The neutral CD, heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-CD, was found suitable for the analysis of illicit cocaine and Qat leaves (Catha edulis Forsk), which contain (-) alphaiaminophenone (-)-cathinone, (+)-norpseudoephedrine (cathine), (-) norephedrine, and possibly (-)-pseudomerucathine. The use of mixtures of the neutral and the anionic CD (beta-CD sulfobutyl ether iv) was found suitable for the analysis of illicit amphetamine, methamphetamine, methacathinone, and propoxyphene. A model is presented for the impact of mixtures of neutral and anionic CDs on migration behaviour and chiral resolution in CE.
5 of 8
TI: Natural history of Qat psychosis.
AU: Jager-AD; Sireling-L
SO: Aust-N-J- Psychiatry. 1994 Jun; 28 (2): 331-2
AB: A paranoid psychosis, resembling amphetamine psychosis, caused by chewing Qat (stems and leaves from the plant Catha edulis) has been well described. Our case demonstrates the natural history of Qat which in previous case reports, has been vigorously treated with major tranquilizers.
6 of 8
TI: Qat an amphetamine -like stimulant.
AU: Kalix- p
SO: J-Psychoactive -Drugs. 1994 Jan -Mar; 26(1): 69- 74
7 of 8
TI: Pharmacodynamics and phamacokinetics of Qat:
a controlled study.
AU: Widler- P; Mathys-K; Brenneism -r;Kalix-P; Fisch-HU
SO: Clin- Pharmacol-Ther; 1994 May: 55 (5): 556-62
AB: OBJECTIVES; To show the subjective and cardiovascular effects of Qat leaves having a standardized content of cathinon. BACKROUND: The main effect of Qat is an increase of energy and alterness. This effect is thought it be attributable to the phenylalkylamine cathinone, but no controlled clinical trials have been published. DESIGN: The design was balanced and double blind. Six drug-nave volunteers received a single dose of Qat as a placebo. Psychological effects were evaluated by the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) and visual analog scales. Physiologic measures were systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate. Plasma concentrations of cathinone and its metabolites norephedrine and R,R (-) norpseudoephedrine were determined by HPLC. 
RESULTS: Maximal plasma concentrations of cathinone (127+/- 53 {SD} ng/ml) were after 127+/-30 minutes. The area under the plasma concentration -time curve from 0 to 9 hr. was 415 +/- 207 mg/ml. Hr, and the terminal elimination half-life was 260+/- 102 minutes. An effect of Qat was observed in the ARCI scales Abuse Potential (p < 0.005), Motor Stimulation (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide objective evidence for the amphetamine-like stimulatory effects of Qat leaves. These effects were closely similar to those observed after cathinone, 0,5 mg/kg body weight, although peak plasma concentrations of cathinone after Qhat were delayed.
8 of 8
TI: Evaluation teratogenic potential of Qhat (Qhat edulis Forsk ) in rats.
AU: Islam-MW; al- Shabanah-OA; al-Harbi-MM; al- Gharably-NM
SO: Drug-Chem- Toxicol. 1994; 17(1): 51-68
AB: The embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of Qhat (Catha edulis Fork.), a plant chewed by the people of Eastern Africa and Southern Africa to attain a state of euphoria and stimulation, was studied in Wistar rats. Methanolic extract of Qhat was administered orally by gavage to rats during days from 6 to 15 of gestation at doses of 0, 125,250 and 500 mg/kg. body weight/ day. Qhat reduced the food consumption and material weight gain and also lowered the food efficiency index, as compared to control mothers. On day 20 of gestation, all dams were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, cesarean sections were performed and maternal and fetal toxicities were assessed. The administration of Qhat had no effect on fetal sex ratio. However, at a dose of 125 mg/kg body weight and above, it produced a significant increase in resorptions and fetal wastage. Qhat administration in utero also reduced the litter size and caused intrauterine growth retardation. External, visceral and skeletal examination of the fetus of treated dams showed several types of malformations and variations in all the groups of animals. However, a consistent tendency of abnormalities was observed in the highest dosed (500 mg/kg) group. The present observations indicate that Qhat possesses both embryotoxic as well as teratogenic properties. The developmental toxicities of Qhat are dose-related.
1 of 12 (1995)
TI: Use of drugs at ‘raves’.
AU: Brown -ER; Jarvie-DR; Simpson-D
SO: Scott-Med-J. 1995 Dec; 40 (6): 168-71
AB: Widespread use of drugs at the currency popular ‘raves’ has caused concern principally because of an increasing number of cases of serious toxicity and even death. The availability and use of drugs at raves, mainly in the Edinburgh area, have been investigated and self-reported use of drugs compared with results of urine screening. Use of ecstasy and LSD have been confirmed and there is evidence to support the use of Qhat. A new preparation, Herbal Ecstasy, is readily available at Edinburgh raves and appears to be widely used. All urines tested positive for one or more drugs or drug metabolites and in general analytical results correlated wee with self-reported use of drugs.
2 of 12
TI: Deleterious effects of Qhat addiction on semen parameters and sperm ultrastructure.
AU: el-Shoura-SM; Abdel’aziz. M; Ali ME; el- Said -MM; Ali-KZ; Kemeir- MA; Raoof- AM; Allam-M; Elmalik- EM
SO: Hum-Reprod. 1995 Sep; 10 (9): 2295-300
AB: The semen parameters and sperm ultrastructural morphology have been described in semen samples from two groups of Yemeni subjects. The first exposed group comprised 65 Qhat addicts, while the second control group included 50 non- Qhat addict subjects. The mean age was 39.94 +/- 13.85 and 35.72 +/- 11.25 years in the exposed and control groups respectively, without a significant difference. The mean duration of Qhat addiction among the addicts was 25.34 +/- 12. 96 years (range 6.0048.00). Statistically significant differences were detected between the semen parameters of the two groups. Such parameters, including semen volume, sperm count, sperm motility index and percentage of normal spermatozoa, were lower among addicts. Significant negative correlation was also found between the duration of Qhat consumption and all semen parameters ( ranged from 0.3 to 0.74). At the transmission electron microscopy level, a counting system was incorporated to compare the numbers of normal spermatozoa with deformed spermatozoa in ultrathin plastic sections. The total mean percentage of deformed spermatozoa was approximately 65%. Different patterns of sperm deformation were demonstrated, and included both the head and flagella in complete spermatozoa, flagellate heads, headless flagella and multiple heads and flagella. Deformed heads showed aberrated nuclei with immature nuclear chromatin and polymorphic intranuclear; these were associated with acrosomal defects. The deformed flagella demonstrated numeric aberrations with acrosomal defects. The deformed flagella demonstrated numeric berrations of the axonemal 1+ 2 configuration and structural effects of their associated elements. Persistent cytoplamic dropets were observed frequently. This study has shown for the first time the deleterious effects of Qhat addiction on semen parameters in general and sperm morphology in particular of all addicts, especially those who have consumed Qhat for longer periods of time.
3 of 12
TI: {Qhat edulis)Ña plant containing an amphetamine – like substance}
AU: Balint-GS; Balint-E
8 of 12
TI: Effect of (-)- cathinone a psychoactive alkaloid from Qhat (Catha edulis Forsk) and caffeine on sexual behaviour in rats.
AU: Taha -SA; Ageel -AM; Islam -MW; Ginawi-OT
SO: Pharmacol-Res. 1995 May; 31(5): 299-303
AB: The effect of (-)- cathinone, caffeine and their combinations was studied on the sexual behaviour of male rats. Male sexual activities were assessed by recording the erectile responses (grooming of genitals, yawning/ stretching and homosexual mounting), in the absence of females. The copulatory behavior was observed by caging males with receptive females brought into estrous with S.C. injection of oestradiol benzoate and progesterone. The copulatory pattern of male rats (mounting, intermissions, ejaculations and refractory period) was recorded. The oral treatment of cathinone (5 mg/kg-1 day -1), caffeine (50 mg kg-1 day-1) and their combinations for 15 days increased arousal (motivation) in male rats as evidenced by increased mounting performance and anogenital investigatory behaviour. However, erectile and ejaculatory responses, measured in the present study, showed no stimulant effect. It is conceivable from the present results that cathinone, the psychostimulant constituent of Qhat cathinone when administered concomitantly. However, our data provide no evidence that cathinone could be considered as an aphrodisiac.
9 of 12
TI: Qhat chewing and bladder neck dysfunctoin.
A randomized controlled trial of alpha 1- adrenergic blockage.
AU: Nasher- AA; Qirbi- AA; Ghafoor- MA; Catterall -A; Thompson- A; Ramsay-JW; Murray- Lyon -IM
SO: Br-J-Urol. 1995 May; 75 (5): 597-8
AB: OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the effect of chewing Qhat leaves ( Catha edulis) on the urodynamics of healthy males is already by the alpha 1-adrenergic blocking agent in prospective randomized double -blind controlled trial. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The urodynamics of 11 healthy males were studied before and during a Qhat chewing session preceded by indoramin or placebo.
RESULTS: Qhat chewing produced a fall in average and maximum urine flow rate. This effect was inhibited by indormin. CONCLUSION: The urinary side-effects of Qhat chewing are probably medical through stimulation of alpha 1- adrenergic receptors.
10 of 12
TI: Qhat chewing delays gastric emptying of a semi-solid meal.
TI: Qhat Heymann- TD; Bhupulan-A; Zureikat -NE; Bomanji-J; Drinkwater- C; Giles-P; Murry -Lyon-IM
SO: Aliment- Pharmacol-Ther. 1995 Feb; 9(1): 81-3
AB: BACKGROUND: The leaves of Qhat are chewed for their central stimulant effect, but their use may cause anorexia and constipation. METHODS: Gastric emptying of a radio -labeled semi-solid meal was measured in 12 healthy volunteers on two occasions a week apart. Subjects chewed either Qhat leaves (Catha edulis) or lettuce for 2 hr before the study. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was significantly (P < 0.02) prolonged after chewing Qhat compared with lettuce. CONCLUSION: The sympathomimetic action of cathinone in Qhat may cause the observed delay in gastric emptying.
11 of 12
TI: Qhat on a hot tin roof. Catha edulis intoxication {published erratum appears in NC Med J 1995 Apr; 56 (4): 136}
AU: Mack- RB
SO: N-C -Med-J. 1995 Feb; 56(2): 112-4
12 of 12
TI: Fascioliasis due to imported Qhat {letter}.
AU: Doherty- JF; Price -N; Moody -AH; Wright-SG; Glynn- MJ
SO: Lancet. 1995 Feb 18; 345 (8947): 462.
1 of 2 (1996)
TI: Periodontal status of a subject sample of Yemen.
AU: Mengel -R; Eigenbrodt-M; Schunemann-T;Flores-de -Jacoby- L
SO: J- Clin- Periodontal. 1996 May; 23 (5): 437-43
AB: From August to October 1991, the periodontal status of 1001 Yemenis representing the age groups 12- 14, 15-19, 20-14 and 35- 44 years was recorded and evaluated with reference to the CPITN, the calculus index and clinical attachment levels. The impact of chewing Qhat, the leaves of a cultivated, alkaloid shrub, and of using the traditional miswak chewing stick for oral hygiene purposes were investigated. The results show that 6.9 % of the juvenile probands (15- 19 years) had healthy periodontal tissue (CPITN 0), whereas bleeding on probing and calculus (CPITN) 1+ 2) were registered in 84.2 %. In the 35-44 year age group, 1. 7 % were periodontal healthy, whereas 84.5 % displaced plaque retention or shallow pocketing (CPITN 2+ 3) and 12.5% deep pocketing (CPITN 4). The treatment needs in all age groups are confined primarily to calculus removal and instruction in oral hygiene. The clinical attachment level and the calculus index revealed age-related attachment loss and calculus formation, primarily among male probands. The higher Qhat consumption among the male population is reflected in its detrimental effect on the periodontal tissue, especially among younger probands. Oral hygiene aids have an influence on periodontal status, with a toothbrush proving more efficient than the miswak. WHO effects directed towards prophylactic programs need to be intensified but can be staffed by dental hygienists.
2 of 2
TI: Catha edulis, a plant that has amphetamine effects.
AU: Kalix-P
SO: Pharm- World -Sci. 1996 Apr;18 (2): 69-73
AB: The chewing of fresh leaves of the Qhat bush (Catha edulis) is common in certain countries of East Africa and the Arab peninsula because this material has a stimulating effect. During the last decade, important progress has been made in understanding the pharmacology of this drug. Its actions are mainly due to the alkaloid cathinone, a substance that can be a natural amphetamine.
1 of 5 (1997)
TI: {Acute Qhat-induced psychotic crisis (letter)}
TO: Episode psychotique aigu induit par le Qhat.
AU: Mion-G; Ruttimann-M; Oberti-M; Aversenq-C
SO: Ann-Fr-Anesth-Reanim. 1997; 16(2): 201-2
ISSN: 0750-7658
MESH: Acute -Disease; Adult -Leaves -adverse-effects
MESH: *Central-Nervous-System-Stimulants-effects; *Plant -Extracts-adverse -effects; *Psychoses,-Substance -Induced-etiology
TG: Case -Report; Human; Male
RN: 0; 0
NM; Central -Nervous- System -Stimulants; Plant- extracts
AN: 1998350700
UD: 199811