QAT: A Dangerous Drug Under the Microscope [Archives:2000/04/Culture]

January 24 2000

2 of 5
TI: Qhat induced psychosis and medico-legal implication: a case report.
AU: Alem-A; Shibre-T
AD: Amanuel Hospital, Addis Ababa.
SO: Ethiop-Med-J. 1997 Apr; 35(2): 137-9
ISSN: 0014-1755
PY: 1997
AB: It has been established that Qhat plant leaves (catha edulis forsk) contain an active psychostimulant substance known as Cathinone that is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamine. There have been no previously reported cases of Qhat induced psychosis in Ethiopia despite heavy consumption of Qhat in most part of the country. We report here a case of brief and episode psychosis attributed to heavy Qhat chewing. We maintain that Qhat leaf is a substance of abuse and Qhat chewing has the potential complicate psychiatric conditions and forensic events.
MESH: Ethiopia – Homicide- legislation -and jurisprudence; Middle Age; Psychoses, Substance -Induced- diagnosis; Social -responsibility; Violence.
MESH: *Central -Nervous-System-Stimulants -adverse -effects; *Plant-Extracts-adverse -effects; *Psychoses, -Substance -Induced -etiology
TG: Case- report; Human ;Male
RN: 0;0; 0
NM: miraa; Central -Nervous- System-Stimulants; Plant- Extracts
AN: 1998237864
UD: 199807
3 of 5
TI: A transcultural pattern of drug use: ( Qhat) in the UK.
AU: Griffiths-P; Gossop-M; Wickenden-S; Dunworth -J; K; Lloyd- C
AD: National Addiction Center, Maudsley Hospital, London.
SO: Br-J- Psychiatry. 1997 Mar; 170:281-4
ISSN: 0007- 1250
PY: 1997
AB: BACKGROUND: This study investigate patterns of Qhat among 207 Somalis living in London. METHOD: Subjects were recruited using privileged access interviewing. Somalian interviewers were recruited who shared the same culture as the subjects. Data were collected by means of a structured interview. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-two subjects (78 %) had used Qhat. The majority (76 %) used more Qhat than in Somalia. Some users reported moderate dependence; a minority reported severe problems. Adverse psychological effects included sleep problems, anxiety and depression. Medical problems associated with Qhat use were rare. CONCLUSION: Qhat users who continue to use this drug when it is transplanted from a traditional context may experience difficulties. Qhat use can also be seen as playing a positive role in supporting the cultural identity of the Somalian community. Sever problems were rarely reported. Qhat consumption should be considered when addressing health-related topics with those communities in which Qhat use is common.
MESH: Adolescence- Adult- Attitude- to- Health; Ethnobotany-, London- epidemiology;
Middle- Age; Plants, Medicinal; * substance -related- disorders- ethnology
TG: female hman; Male ; Support- Non-U.S- Government
AN: 1997372983
UD: 199710
4 of 5
TI: Renocolic fistula as a complication to xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.
AU: Majeed- HA; Mohammed -KA; Salman-HA
AD: AL Sabah Hospital, Sulaibi Qhat- Kuwait
SO: Singapore-Med -J. 1997 Mar; 38(3): 116-9
ISSN: 0037-5675
PY: 1997
AB: Four patients with xanthogranulomatous pyelonepritis were found to have renocolic fistualae. Coincidentally, the left kindey was involved in all four cases. All patients presented with renal mass. Two cases have had coexistent renal stones, one of them presented with massive supper gastrointestinal bleeding as a result of portal hypertension. Another patient had a history of Schistosomiasis. In none of the patients was the renal condition confidently diagnosed properatively, nor was the colonic fistula suspected. In all four patients, nephrectomy was performed together with resection of the involved colon followed by a satisfactory recovery. The possibility of a colonic fistula should be kept in mind as a complication to this rare renal condition in spite of the absence of colonic symptoms and normal finding in barium enema studies.
MESH: Adult- Colic- diagnosis; Emergencies; Gastrointestinal- Hemorrhage-diagnosis; kidney-Calculi-diagnosis;kidney-Calculi-etiology; kidney Diseases -diagnoses; Middle-Age;
Pylenephritis,- Xanthogranulomatous-diagnosis; Urinary-Fistula-diagnosis
MESH: * Colic-etiology; *Kidney -Disease-etiology; *Pyelonephritis- Xanthogranulomatous- complications; *Urinary -Fistula -etiology
TG: Case-Report; Female; Human; Male
AN: 1997414712
UD: 199711
5 of 5
TI: Effect of Qhat chewing on the bioavailability of ampicillin and amoxycillin.
AU: Affect -OA; Ali -AA; Ali-HM
AD: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sana’a University of Yemen.
SO: J-Antimicrob- Chemother. 1997 Apr; 39 (4): 523-5
ISSN: 0305-7453
PY: 1997
AB: The study examined the effect of Qhat chewing on ampicillin and amoxycilin bioavailability following the administration of a 500 mg single dose each antibiotic at different times relative to Qhat chewing. Using a urinary excertion method the biooavailabilities of ampicillin and amoxycillin was only significantly reduced when the antibiotic was taken midway through the Qhat chewing session. It was concluded that the two antibiotics, particularly ampicillin-urine; Biological-Availability; Plant-Leaves- chemistry.
MESH: *Amoxicillin-pharmacology; * Ampicillin-pharmacokinetics; *Central -Nervous-System-Stimulants-pharmacology; *Plant-Extracts-pharmacology.
TG: Comparative-study; Human; Male
RN: 0; 0; 0; 26787-78-0; 69-53-4
NM: miraa; Central-Nervous-System -Stimulants; Pant -Extracts; Amoxicillin; Ampicillin
AN: 199729121
UD: 199709
1 of 3 (1998)
TI: The Qhat-chewing elderly {letter}
AU: Salib- E; Ahmed- AG
SO: Int-J-Geriatr-Psychiatry. 1998 Jul; 13(7): 493-4
ISSN: 0885-6230
PY: 1998
MESH: Aged -England -epidemiology; Mental-Disorder- chemically-induced; Middle Age; Somalia -ethnology.
MESH: *Central -Nervous -system -Stimulant pharmacology; * cognition -drugeffects; *Mental-Dsorders-epidemiology; *plant-extracts -pharmacology
RN: 0; 0; 0
NM: Miraa; Central – Nervous -system- stimulants; plant- extracts
AN: 1998360153
UD: 199901
2 of 3
TI: Determination of (S) (-)- cathinone by spectrophotometric detection.
AU: al-Obaid -AM; al-Tamrah-SA; Aly; FA; Alwarthan -AA
AD: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
SO: J-Pharm-Biomed-Anal. 1998 Jun; 17(2): 321-6
ISSN: 1998
AB: This study reports the demographic and social characteristics and level of psychological dysfunction in regular Qhat users compared with matched non-users. The results indicate that Qhat users resemble non-users on a number of psychosocial variables and GHQ scores, with no evidence to suggest higher morbidity amongst user. The two groups appear to differ only in the level of their use of nicotine and also in their perception of the harmful effects associated with Qhat use.
MESH: Adolescence-; Adult-; Aged -England -epidemiology ; Middle age ; Socioeconomic – epidemiology.
TG: Human; Male
RN: 0; 0; 0
NM: miraa; Central- Nervous -System- Stimulants; Plant _extracts
AN: 1998268016
UD: 199809
1 of 2 ( 1999)
TI: Genetic toxicology of abused drugs: a brief review.
AU: Li-JH; Lin-LF
AD: National Narcotics Bureau, Department of Health, Executive Yuan ( Cabinet), Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. Nbjhligt (at)
SO: Mutagenesis. 1998 Nov; 13 (6): 557-65
ISSN: 0267-8357
PY: 1998
AB: Although numerous studies have been conducted on abused drugs, most focus on the problems of addiction (dependence) and their neurotoxicities. Now accumulated data have demonstrated that the genotixicity and /or carcinogenicity of abused substances, including LSD, opiates (diacetylmorphine, morphine, opium and codeine), cocaine, cannabis, betel quid and Qhat, are discussed for their potential genotoxicity/ carcinogenicity. The available literature in the field, although not as for neurotoxicity, clearly indicates the capability of abused drugs to induce genotoxicity.
MESH: Areca-adverse -effects; Areca-toxicity; Cannabis-adverse-effects; Cannabis-toxicity; Cocaine-adverse-effects;Cocaine-toxicity Lysergic-Acid-Diethlamide-adverse-effects; Lysergic-Acid -Diethylamide-toxicity; Mutagenicity- Tests; Nacrotics-adverse-effects; Narcotics-toxicity;
Neoplasms-etiology; Risk-Assessment; Substance-Related -Disorders-complications
MESH: *CARCINOGENS-ADVERSE-EFFECTS; *Carinogens; *Chromosome -Aberrations;
*Mutagens-adverse-effects; *Mutagens-toxicity; *Street -Drug -adverse; -effects;Drugs-toxicity.
TG: Animal; Human; Support, Non-U.S- gov’t
RN: 0; 0; 0; 0; 50-36-2; 50- 37-3
NM: Carcinogens; Mutagens; Narcotics; Street-Drugs; Cocaine; Lysergic -Acid-Diethylamide
AN: 1999077002
UD: 199904
2 of 2
TI: Rapid assessment of drug abuse in Ethiopia.
AU: selassie- SG; Gebre-A
AD: Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
SO: Bull-Narc. 1996; 48(1-2): 53-63
ISSN: 0007-523X
PY: 1996
AB: A study of drug and substance abuse at Addis Ababa and in 24 towns across Ethiopia was conducted from June to November 1995. Five of respondents were selected for the study: street children, commercial sex workers and street vendors; medical, social and pubic health workers; law enforcement officials; leaders of religious institutions and educational establishments, youth leaders and personal of non-governmental organizations providing social service to communities; and focus groups comprised of men and women from the various places covered in the study. All categories of respondents agreed that the problem of substance abuse was becoming increasingly serious in Ethiopia; that adolescents and young adults were the most affected group; and that addictive substance were easily obtained in the country. The study also found that there was a significant increase in the number of Ethiopians chewing Qhat (Catha edulis ). Qhat, previously known to grow in the eastern part of Ethiopia, was widely cultivated in all parts of the country. Qhat consumption, traditionally confined to a certain segment of the population, had become popular among of the population. Some of the resondents reported that Qhat chewing often led to the abuse of illicit substances.
MESH: Adolescence; Adult-; Child ; Drug -and-Narcotic-Control-Legislation-and jurisprudence;
Ethiopia- espidemiology; Knowledge, Attitudes -Prevalence -Questionnaires- Time- Factors
MESH: * Population -Surveillance -methods; *Substance -Abuse -Detection- methods; *Substance-
Related-Disorders- epidemiology; Substance-Related -Disorder-Prevention-and-control; *Urban-health
TG: Female; Human; Male
AN: 1999056414
UD: 199904