The Geological Research History Work in the Republic of Yemen (1852-1946) [Archives:2000/02/Culture]

January 10 2000

By Mohammed Darsi*
This paper is the first paper, which discusses the geological research history work in the Republic of Yemen during the period from 1852 to 1946. The geological research work history in the Republic of Yemen is a brief rich culture history, included information about the first and most famous Geologists.
It is known that rich culture history is largely depended upon written documents, whereas the geological research history work story must be inferred from the careful study.
Based on variably detailed information of hundreds publications references. I decided to divided the geological research history work in Yemen to four stages:
First Stage: 1852-1901
Second Stage: 1902-1946
Third Stage: 1947-1967
Forth stage: 1968 – until today
First Stage: 1852-1901
In my opinion this First Stage must started from the middle part of the ninetieth century to the early part of the twentieth century.
For this first stage I gave it two new names:
First name: The First Systematic Geological Observation Stage.
Second name: Carter’s Stage.
Carter, H.J., 1852
He was interested in Yemen and especially in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula Coast. He was the first man and the lonely man of this stage (1852-1901). He made the First Systematic Geological Observation in the region at variety of selected locations along the southern Arabian Coast between Muscat and Aden.
Second Stage: 1902-1946
This Stage must started from the early part of the twentieth century until after World War II. This Second Stage I called it: The Hinterland Studies Stage.
It is known, that the first geological studies of the hinterland of Yemen did not begin, however, until the early part of the twentieth century.
The men of this stage were:
1- Raisin, C.A., 1902
He wrote notes on the Geology of Perim Island.
2- Kossmat, F., 1907
He made The First Systematic Geological Investigation of Socotra archipelago.
3,4- Crick, G.C., and Newton, R.B., 1908 Published determinations of Jurassic mollusks.
5- Lloyd, R.E., 1910
In 1910, Lloyd, R.E., published observations on the sedimentary and volcanic rocks from the area between Aden and Ad-Dali (some 110 km to the north).
6,7- Tipper, G.H., Vradenberg, E.W., 1910
In the same year Tipper, G.H., Vradenberg, E.W., respectively publishing paleontological and petrologic determinations of Lloyd’s sample collection.
8- Botez, G., 1912
In the sector between Hodaida on the Red Sea and San’a, Botez, G., carried out hydrogeological studies.
9- Lamare, P., 1923
Investigated the southwestern and central parts of (former North Yemen). He published the First Lithostratigraphic Accounts of the sedimentary successions of Yemen.
10-Roman, O. (Rotman), 1923
Carried out petrologic studies on the samples, that Botez, G., had collected.
11- Little, O.H., 1925
Carried out a through geological reconnaissance of the Mukalla hinterland in the coastal and plateau region of (former South Yemen) at that time, the Aden Protectorate.
12,13- Rathjens, C., Von Wissmann, H., 1929,1934
More regional geographical /geological/ cartographic investigations were carried out in various sectors of the interior of Yemen.
14- Basse, E., 1930
He made a specific reference to the western part (the high plateau) augmented by paleontological determinations.
15- Carpentier, C., 1932
Published paleontological determinations.
16- Caton-Thompson, G., 1938
Studied the Geology and Archaeology of Hadramaut, Southwest Arabia; according to preliminary notes on Lord Wakefield Expedition.
17- Gardner, E.W., 1939
He and Caton-Thompson, G., wrote an article on Climate, Irrigation and Early Man in Hadramaut.
1- In the First stage (The First Systematic Geological Observation Stage or CARTER, H.J., Stage.) and the Second Stage (The Hinterland Studies Stage) early maps were based on photographs and isolated visits, generally to the coastal region.
2- Geologic and stratigraphic relations in the region are complex and it must be realized that it was not until after world II that it was possible to compile of the region.
3- This study led to significant improvement in imaging about the geological research history in the Republic of Yemen, particularly about the first and the most famous geologists, who worked visits, worked and this has been key to understanding.
4-It is broad in scope so as to serve both the beginning geology major and the under graduate seeking to learn about or to make him read about the geological research history work in Yemen.
I would like to extend my thanks to the Yemeni Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources (MOMR) and also to the Changchun University of science and technology for there help and support.
I gratefully thank the Editors of World Geology for their suggestions and guidelines for publishing the paper.
I am indebted to Professors Wang Dong Po and Xue Lin Fu (Changchun University of science and technology), who provided many helpful suggestions and comments.
Mohammed Darsi graduated from the Russian among People Friendship University in 1991 as a Petroleum Engineer, Geologist (M.S. degree). He began his professional career by working as petroleum engineer, geologist in the Petroleum Exploration and Production Board (Aden Branch). His scientific interest is concentrated on the Geological Research History Work, Earth science software application and basin-modeling problems.